Grandpappy's Basic Recipes
Copyright © 1976,2014 by Robert Wayne Atkins, P.E.
A Collection of
Yeast Bread Recipes
(No Eggs Required)
All Rights Reserved.
Most bread recipes require both yeast and eggs. Yeast causes the bread to rise and become light. Eggs add protein, color, and bulk to the bread. Under hardship conditions you may have limited amounts of both yeast and fresh eggs.
The good news is that yeast multiplies and a little yeast can last a very, very, long time if you follow the simple directions below.
The bad news is that eggs don't multiply. Once they have been used, they are gone. And if you only have a few eggs during hard times, then you may wish to use them for something other than baking.
If you have store-bought eggs, don't try to hatch them because they were laid by hens on an egg farm without roosters. Hens can lay eggs without a rooster but the eggs won't be fertile without a rooster.
The following bread recipes require yeast but they are all Egg Free. However, some of the recipes do permit the use of an optional egg.
Freeze store bought yeast until it is needed.
When you need some yeast, remove a yeast packet from the freezer and allow it to gradually warm up to normal room temperature. Then stir a little crumbled yeast into some warm water (105ºF to 115ºF or 40.6ºC to 46.1ºC). Test the water on your wrist. It should feel warm but not hot. If the water is too hot it will kill the yeast. If the water is too cold it will slow down the process. Adding a little sugar (about 1/4 teaspoon) to the water will speed up the process. Adding salt or fat will slow it down. Good yeast will become foamy and creamy in about 8 to 12 minutes.
For many years I have recommended the "Hodgson Mill Brand" Active Dry Yeast in the 5/16 ounce foil packets. In December of the year 2013 I tested some Hodgson Mill Active Dry Yeast packets that I had stored in the freezer. All of the yeast packets were far beyond their printed expiration dates. Some were 3.5 years past expiration, some were 10.5 years past expiration, and some were 11.5 years past their printed expiration date. I tested some yeast from all three batches and the yeast in every packet that I tested quickly multiplied in a glass of warm water with a tiny amount of sugar added. Based on this simple experiment I still strongly recommend that you store your yeast in the freezer until you actually need it.
My yeast experiment was only conducted on one brand of yeast and my experiment did not include any quick yeast or instant yeast.
All Yeast Breads
Don't waste your package yeast. The first time you make bread using a packet of yeast, pinch off one handful of the bread dough after the first rise and save that handful of dough in an airtight container in a cool dark place, such as the refrigerator. The dough will remain fresh for two or three days in the refrigerator. The next time you make bread thoroughly mix (knead) the old dough into the new batch of dough that doesn't contain any yeast. Completely mix the old dough and the new dough together. The yeast in the old dough will multiply and spread throughout the new dough. After the first rise, pinch off one handful of dough and save it. Continue this process each time you make yeast bread. If you will follow this simple procedure then one packet of yeast will last a very, very long time.
OPTIONAL Crust Variations for All Breads
Just before putting the bread dough into the oven, use a pastry brush to carefully and very gently paint the top of the dough.
Cold water brushed or sprayed on the bread dough will yield a crisp, chewy crust.
Oil or melted butter will yield a soft crust.
1 tbsp. honey with 2 tbsp. water yields a sweet, glossy finish.
1 tbsp. lemon juice with 2 tbsp. sugar gives a fruity, sweet flavor.
1 egg white beaten with 1 tbsp. water gives a shiny, crisp crust.
1 egg white beaten with 1 tbsp. milk gives a shiny, softer crust.
1 whole egg with 2 tbsp. water gives a shiny, rich, dark crust.
Water: Chewy texture with more of the original flour flavor.
Milk: Bread will rise higher and have a finer texture and it will keep longer. Heat fresh milk until it almost boils to kill the enzymes that interfere with the yeast action in the bread. Do not heat canned milk or instant milk. Milk also adds nutritional value to the finished bread.
Buttermilk: Bread will be more tender. Heat the buttermilk until it almost boils. Do not use too much or it will make the bread too tender and it will fall apart.
Potato Water: The water left over after boiling potatoes. Causes the bread to rise higher and adds a coarser texture and moistness. Do not substitute more than 1/2 potato water for the normal water required in the recipe.
Oils or Butter: Adds tenderness and improves the elasticity of the bread. Increases bulk and helps the bread to brown more evenly. However, too much oil will make the bread crumbly. Use a maximum of 1 tbsp. oil or shortening or butter per 1 cup of flour.
Wheat Berry Sprouting Water: Adds nutrition, texture, and flavor enhancement to the bread.
Miscellaneous OPTIONAL Ingredients
Eggs: Adds protein, color, and bulk. Extends the shelf life of the bread. For each egg used, deduct 1/4 cup of the other liquid in the recipe. Use no more than 2 eggs per loaf of bread.
Honey: Maximum of 1 tbsp. per 1 cup of flour. Adds flavor and moistness and helps to feed the yeast and increases the shelf life of the bread.
Salt: Maximum of 1/2 tsp. per 1 cup of flour. Controls the yeast process. Improves flavor and increases the shelf life of the bread. A bread made with no salt will taste flat. Do NOT add the salt to the yeast water or it will inhibit the initial yeast process.
100% Whole Wheat Loaf Bread (Recipe One)
(Must be eaten in two days or sliced and frozen)
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm water and let stand 12 minutes. Add oil, honey, dry milk, salt, and enough wheat flour to make a stiff dough. Allow to rest under an inverted bowl for 10 minutes. Then knead for 10 minutes. Place in greased bowl, cover, and let rise until double in bulk or about 90 minutes. Punch down and form into ball. Cover and let rest for 10 minutes. Shape into loaf and place in greased loaf pan. Cover and let rise until double in bulk, about 45 to 60 minutes.
|3 cups wheat flour||2 tbsp. oil||2 tbsp. honey||1 tsp. salt|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||1 cup warm water||1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk|
Cook: Bake at 375°F for 40 minutes. Brush hot loaf with milk.
100% Whole Wheat Loaf Bread (Recipe Two)
(Must be eaten in two days or sliced and frozen)
Follow above preparation and cooking instructions but substitute the butter for the oil.
|2.25 cups wheat flour||1 tbsp. melted butter||2.5 tbsp. honey||1 tsp. salt|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||3/4 cup warm water||1 tbsp. instant nonfat dry milk|
100% Whole Wheat French Bread
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm water for 12 minutes. Sift wheat flour and salt together. Add yeast and cold water. Knead for 20 minutes and add at least 1/2 cup more cold water by wetting your hands as your knead. Dough should be soft and silky. Cover and let rise in cool place for 3 hours. Punch down gently with wet hands being careful not to tear dough. Cover and let rise again in a cool place for 2 hours. Punch down and form into a ball. Cover and let rest while you dust a baking sheet with corn meal. Shape dough into a long slim loaf. Place on baking sheet. Let rise uncovered for 1 hour. Cut slashes in top of loaf.
|3 cups wheat flour||3/4 cup cold water||1.5 tsp. salt|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||1/4 cup warm water|
Cook: Spray the loaf with warm water and quickly place in 450°F oven. Place a shallow pan with boiling water on the oven rack below the bread. After 10 minutes reduce the heat to 350°F. Bake until done, another 25 to 30 minutes.
Optional: Add 2 tbsp. oil, or 1.5 tbsp. sugar, or both to the above recipe with the flour and salt.
Sandwich Buns (12 Buns)
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm water and let stand 12 minutes. Then add sugar, salt, oil, dry milk, and 3/4 cup flour. Beat vigorously by hand. Stir in additional flour to make a stiff dough. Knead on a floured board until smooth and elastic (10 minutes). Place in greased bowl, cover, and let rise in warm place for 45 minutes. Punch dough down. Let rise again about 20 minuets. Divide dough and form into 12 balls. Place on greased baking sheet 2” apart. Let rest for 5 minutes. Press down with palm to flatten. Cover and let rise in warm place for 1 hour.
|3 cups wheat flour||1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||1 cup warm water||2.5 tbsp. instant nonfat dry milk|
|1/2 cup sugar||1/2 tsp. salt||2.5 tbsp. oil|
Cook: Bake at 375°F for 15 to 20 minutes. Remove from baking sheet and let cool on wire racks.
Hard Rolls (9 Rolls)
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm water and let stand for 12 minutes. Add sugar and salt. Stir well. Add 1.5 cups flour. Mix well. Cover and let rise for 20 minutes. Add the remaining flour and mix well. Knead for 5 minutes on a floured board. Cover and let rise 1 hour. Punch down and let rise again. Shape into 9 rolls. Place on lightly oiled baking sheet. Sprinkle with cornmeal. Slash tops with knife. Cover and let rise until doubled.
|2.25 cups wheat flour||2 tbsp. corn meal||1/2 tsp. salt|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||1 cup warm water||1 tsp. sugar|
Cook: Bake at 400ºF on top oven rack with a pan of hot water on bottom oven rack for 20 to 25 minutes until golden brown.
Whole Wheat Crescent Rolls (16 Rolls)
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm water and let stand 12 minutes. Add brown sugar, oil, honey, salt, and 3/4 cup wheat flour. Mix well. Stir in enough of the remaining flour to make a stiff dough. Knead on a lightly floured surface for 10 minutes. Place in a greased bowl, cover, and let rise 90 minutes. Divide dough in half and shape into 2 balls. Cover and let rest 10 minutes. Roll each ball into an 8” to 10” circle. Spread with 1/3 of the butter. Cut each circle into 8 wedges. To make crescents, roll wide end of wedge toward point. Place on greased baking sheet. Cover and let rise 30 minutes.
|2.5 cups wheat flour||1 tbsp. brown sugar||1.5 tbsp. oil||2 tbsp. honey|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||7/8 cup warm water||1 tsp. salt||3 tbsp. butter|
Cook: Bake at 375°F for 12 to 15 minutes. Brush with milk or butter while still warm.
Wheat Rolls (12 Rolls)
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm water and let stand 12 minutes. Stir in the warm milk, sugar, salt, and 1 cup of the flour. Mix until smooth. Cover the batter with a handful of flour and let rise in a warm place for about 2 hours or until the top has cracked. Add enough of the remaining flour to make a smooth dough and kneed it for about 10 minutes. Cover and let rise 20 minutes. Shape into rolls and place on a baking sheet.
|2 cups flour||1/8 cup sugar||1/4 tsp. salt|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||1/4 cup warm water||1/4 cup warm milk|
Cook: Bake at 400°F for about 15 to 20 minutes.
English Muffins (10 Muffins)
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in 2 tbsp. warm water and let stand 12 minutes. In another bowl, combine milk, sugar and salt with one cup hot water. Add the yeast solution. Stir in 1 cup of flour. Cover bowl with a towel and let rise 90 minutes in a warm place. Stir in butter and remaining flour. Roll dough to 3/4 inch thickness. Cut 2½ inch circles from dough and place on a piece of wax paper sprinkled with cornmeal. Sprinkle tops with more cornmeal. Let rise again.
|2 cups wheat flour||1/4 cup milk||1 tsp. sugar||1/2 tsp. salt|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||2 tbsp. warm water||1.5 tbsp. soft butter||1 tbsp. cornmeal|
Cook: Cook on a griddle, turning once.
English Muffin Loaf
Preparation: Combine yeast, 1.5 cups flour, dry milk, sugar, salt, and baking soda. Mix well. Add the warm water. Beat well. Add remaining flour. Grease an 8” x 4” loaf pan. Sprinkle with cornmeal. Spoon the batter into the pan. Sprinkle top of loaf with cornmeal. Cover. Let rest 45 minutes.
|3 cups wheat flour||1/3 cup instant dry milk||1/2 tbsp. sugar||1 tsp. salt|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||1.25 cups warm water||1/8 tsp. baking soda||2 tbsp. cornmeal|
Cook: Bake at 400°F for 25 minutes.
Pita Bread (2 Pieces)
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in 2 tbsp. warm water and let stand 12 minutes. Mix flour, sugar, and salt with 2/3 cup warm water. Add the yeast solution. Knead for 10 minutes. Put in greased bowl, cover, let rise for one-hour. Punch down, knead, reshape. Cover and let rise for 30 minutes. Divide into 2 parts. Roll each into an 8-inch diameter round. Place on greased cookie sheet.
|2 cups wheat flour||1 tsp. sugar||1/2 tsp. salt|
|1 tsp. yeast||2 tbsp. warm water||2/3 cup warm water|
Cook: Bake at 450°F for 5 minutes.
Pizza (One 14-inch Pizza)
Preparation: Dissolve yeast and sugar in 2/3 cup warm water. Let stand for 12 minutes. Add 1 cup flour, 2 tsp. oil, and salt and mix well. Continue to add flour to make a soft dough. Knead the dough on a floured board for 7 minutes until it is smooth and elastic. Put dough in an oiled bowl, cover with a cloth, and allow to rise in a warm place for 2 hours. Punch it down and let it rest 5 minutes. Roll the dough into a 14” circle using a rolling pin (or pat and stretch with your hands). Place on pizza pan (or cookie sheet) and prick all over with a fork. Cover with a cloth and let rest for 20 minutes.
|1.75 cups flour||2 tsp. + 1 tbsp. olive oil||2/3 tsp. salt|
|1 tsp. yeast||2/3 cup warm water||1 tsp. sugar|
|1 cup tomato (or spaghetti) sauce||1 cup grated mozzarella cheese||1 tsp. oregano|
Cook: Bake in 425°F oven for 3 minutes. Remove from oven. Spread tomato sauce evenly over crust. Sprinkle grated cheese and oregano evenly over sauce. (Optional: Add meat, mushrooms, or vegetables as desired.) Drizzle 1 tbsp. olive oil over everything. Bake 14 to 16 minutes until underside of crust is golden brown.
Bread on the Grill
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm water and let stand 12 minutes. Then add sugar, salt, oil, and flour. Beat vigorously by hand. Knead on a floured board until smooth and elastic (10 minutes). Place in greased bowl, cover, and let rise in warm place for 90 minutes. On a floured surface roll out half the dough into a 10” round circle. Rub both sides with cornmeal.
|2 cups wheat flour||1/2 tsp. sugar||1/2 tsp. salt||1 tbsp. olive oil|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||3/4 cup warm water||2 tbsp. cornmeal|
Cook: Brush grill rack with oil and fry 5 minutes on each side.
Cinnamon Rolls or Sweet Sticky Buns
Preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm water and let stand 12 minutes. Then add sugar, salt, oil, dry milk, and 3/4 cup flour. Beat vigorously by hand. Stir in additional flour to make a stiff dough. Knead on a floured board until smooth and elastic (10 minutes). Place in greased bowl, cover, and let rise in warm place for 45 minutes. Punch dough down. Let rise again about 20 minutes. Roll dough to 1/2 inch thickness. Cover and let rise 1 hour. Butter the top of the dough. Sprinkle with cinnamon and a little more sugar. Roll up the dough and slice into 1/2 widths. Place in individual greased muffin tins or onto a greased cookie pan.
|3 cups wheat flour||1/2 cup sugar||1/2 tsp. salt||2.5 tbsp. oil|
|1/2 pkg. yeast (1/2 tbsp.)||1 cup warm water||2.5 tbsp. instant nonfat dry milk||1/2 tsp. cinnamon|
Cook: Bake at 375°F for 15 minutes or until done.
Optional: Add raisins and/or nuts with the cinnamon.
Optional Icing for Above Cinnamon Rolls
Cook butter until it stops bubbling and it is brown and foamy. Remove from heat. Add either the corn syrup or
the vanilla extract but not both. Stir in the sugar. Gradually add the hot water to achieve the desired
consistency for spreading.
|2 tbsp. butter||1 cup sugar (brown or powdered)|
|1 or 2 tbsp. boiling water||2 tbsp. corn syrup OR 1/2 tsp. vanilla extract|
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